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shutter speed, lens information, date, time, timecode, etc.) Earlier, we mentioned the metadata that is created during the shoot (camera and lens information, director’s notes, etc. VIDEO EDITING WORKFLOW 3. Based in Melbourne, we specialize in finishing, DCP mastering, dailies transcoding, pipeline development and production management. New media companies and video marketing teams are expanding their video production capacities rapidly, however, and it’s much more common for those teams to be distributed across multiple locations. Contributed by Isaac Terronez, Producer, video editor, and technologist. The edit may be in LA, the color correction in New York, and the VFX in Toronto. Most interchange formats unfortunately can’t handle much complexity in the timeline, and so we need to simplify the timeline down to the most basic setup—a series of clips, one after another—before we export. This workflow is uncommon, though). While providing a captions file for optional viewing seems to be pretty self explanatory, there are some considerations to be made. Contributed by Reuben Evans, Executive Producer, Faithlife TV. Pre-production is the stage where you try and convince everyone that your film is about to start shooting. You scourge through all your digital footages, categorize them and short-list the shots that you want to use. Each NLE handles this process differently, some more smoothly than others, but there is a workflow for each of them. From one platform, video creators can share content and receive organized feedback from collaborators, all in one location. This is never ideal but is sometimes necessary). It’s vital to consider your complete workflow at this point, because the camera and the codec that you choose now will have major implications for your entire workflow. The “5” in 5.1 represents the Left, Center, Right, Ls, and Rs channels. Even if they use another program to color correct the footage, like Resolve, these will only be internal handoffs on the same machine/network, rather than to an external color team which is probably in a completely different facility. Dir. Perceived audio quality, just like video quality, can vary incredibly on where and how the end user decides to view the media. 7.1 Mix – (8 audio channels) Left, Center, Right, Left Side (Ls), Right Side (Rs), Left Rear (Lr), Right Rear (Rr), and Low Frequency Effects (LFE). The Workflow page opens for a new workflow containing all the information of the selected template. Even in those cases, however, it’s still common to separate the different processes. Every NLE provides color-correction features, for instance, but not at the same level as purpose-built color tools. Whichever path you choose for your project, the color correction process will play a tremendous role in shaping your film, technically and artistically. Mixing to be in compliance with the CALM Act is important to ensure your audio isn’t rejected by the NOC. What’s the process? However, if the source audio media is highly compressed, then exporting into a perceptually lossless format is preferred. On most feature films and TV shows, this type of distributed workflow is rare. The use of these lower third texts is to provide some relevant or additional information in the story that otherwise cannot be conveyed. In addition to thinking about the footage hierarchically, the editor also thinks in terms of the attributes of each clip. Storyboards – typically hand-drawn still images showing the framing and intended action of certain shorts that provide the editor with a pre-timed space in which to drop the completed (or work-in-progress) VFX and assist in choosing the best surrounding live action shots. Each of them is well-suited for a particular case, but none of them is best for every situation. Avid’s DNxHR and Apple’s ProRes are very common for editorial. We’ve written detailed guides for proxy workflows in each of the major NLEs: These three guides contributed by Sofi Marshall, Freelance Editor. Lastly, the way that you transfer files from one location to another can take the form of traditional FTP, web-based transfer services, P2P (peer-to-peer) applications, or dedicated accelerated transfer utilities. Smooth out any “frankenbites” (Sometimes a word or sentence must be created if rerecording isn’t an option. Trailer style booms and whooshes are some typical examples. They both refer to individual elements of a final mix that have been split out into their own files (voice over, dialogue, music, sound effects, etc). Always expanding, always free. 5.1 Mix – (6 audio channels) Left, Center, Right, Left Surround (Ls), Right Surround (Rs), and Low Frequency Effects (LFE). There are some situations (a sit-down interview, for instance), where separate sound recording is probably not necessary. Stereo Mix – (2 audio channels) A left and a right speaker. This format is used in most modern cinemas. You could shoot video of fire against a black background and then composite it into a shot of the house. This is mainly due to the fact that these are the media files that the Network Operations Center (NOC) will play when on-air (they won’t be re-compressing it first). Text-o-matic – The most basic type of placeholder, they’re simply title cards with shot descriptions. A special note about dialog tracks – it is best to keep all of the different microphone channels from production vertically grouped together. Remember that sound quality equals a video quality. The conform translates the film from the language of the editor to that of the color and sound teams. Check out this really cool video for directors about understanding colour therapy. Use this room tone to bridge dialog bites together and add air for longer fade ins/outs (especially important if the room tone is particularly noisy or loud). Once you’ve exported a raw file, you have lost some of the information inside it. When you hear visual effects (VFX), you probably first think of monsters and spaceships. Working with deep color spaces and high dynamic range (HDR) images can be extremely complicated because there are so many different formats and tools and workflows, many of which are not compatible with each other. This scenario is primarily applicable to broadcast television, where government regulations specify acceptable loudness levels (these specifications vary from country to country). It is important to understand what environment your project will be playing in and what specs that environment may require. As soon as a draft is ready for review, the timeline is rendered and compressed, the file is uploaded, and the reviewers are notified automatically. Poor audio quality, accents, and background noise can interfere with the YouTube algorithm. To simplify this phase of the post-production workflow, get mixers to work on specific stems so it’s easier to make changes to the soundtrack. In other words, you are free to use the full dynamic range that digital audio can offer, as long as the film is mixed by an engineer with an accurate frame of reference. This helps the visual effects team to get on the same page and in turn aids the sound editing teams. If the editors are using Final Cut Pro X, however, they may request a ProRes codec. If the dailies have arrived in a log format, then the assistant editors will need to manage the LUTs or CDLs and make sure that they are properly applied to all media, so that the editor can properly judge each shot. Later on, when the colorist is grading the footage, he or she will want to see the LUTs that the DP prepared. So, before anybody views the dailies, they often must be transcoded. As with everything in the post-production process, you will need to balance resources. AAFs can contain both video and audio information, but they are especially common when sending projects to the sound department. Shared storage solves this problem by allowing everyone on the team to connect to a single data server which holds all of their files in one place. Many times, the video does not come out the way it was intended so post-production stage offers a saving grace. Check out this great video on making rough cuts faster. Motion tracking (also called Match Moving) allows you to insert an element (either CG or live-action) into a moving live-action shot. Each media outlet will manipulate your audio. Once the colorist has finished matching shots and crafting the look of each scene, the project moves on to the finishing artist (sometimes called a finishing editor or online editor). When you’re transcoding your dailies (in the next section), you’re going to need beefier hardware or else a lot more patience. This workflow is becoming less common, however. Generally speaking, the more expensive the camera, the better the available codecs are, but there are some exceptions. You can either supply the entire original source file (which may be much longer than the section that’s actually used in the sequence), or you can export a smaller sub-clip. In order to prep for the conform, the film must be collapsed down to a single track. Most NLEs support mono and stereo audio editing. Hint: it was more than 20 years ago. An expanded track layout would include Mix Left, Mix Right, Boom, Lav 1, Lav 2, etc. This step can help the sound designer see and hear the project as the editor did, albeit a much cleaner version. Video without audio is just surveillance! As a reminder, all professional outlets will have a deliverables document or webpage to reference – ALWAYS ask for this prior to creating deliverables. That information can then be easily imported directly into the editing software for the editorial team to use when cutting the film. Keeping track of all of that data is a surprisingly complex task, especially since different software handles metadata differently. The ultimate goal of the dialog edit is to produce a seamless, natural sounding dialog track. Handing off a locked edit to the colorist is much simpler than working actively in tandem with another editor, however. Usually, if you are adding a CG element to a live-action shot, the VFX software can generate a matte automatically. Share storage is of course one of the most important pieces of hardware for the editorial team, as we mentioned above. The in-person scenario can allow for good discussions among the reviewers, but in many productions, the editorial team may not be present, and so those comments may not make their way into the editorial process. The fire in “Get Out” was computer-generated. Contributed by Reuben Evans, Faithlife TV. This is usually done manually or semi-manually, and can be extremely time-consuming. When you created proxy files for the editors to use, the camera files and the audio files were merged. In the past, most video collaboration involved uploading a video to a storage site or video sharing site, then a back-and-forth barrage of emails would ensue among all the collaborators. Post-Production is the stage after production when the filming is wrapped and the editing of the visual and audio materials begins. Many studios offer in-house reviews, but online reviewing methods are increasingly being used. You have to find the right LUT for your footage, and you also need to manage your LUTs throughout the whole post-production process. Probably many of them. Keying is based on shooting a foreground subject against a color that is easily isolated and removed digitally, thus creating a holdout matte for the foreground image that allows it to be placed over a different background. Captions can significantly improve the quality of your video viewing experience and can boost its appeal. At the end of the day, all of the results of your entire team’s efforts are contained in a few very fragile pieces of metal and plastic. Documentary filmmakers, and science filmmakers will have a slightly different process in post-production than large Hollywood productions. The colorist puts the final polish on the film, using specialized tools to shift the audience’s mood from moment to moment. The highest quality file, from which all other versions will be generated from, is often called a “mezzanine” file. Here you go –. The finishing artist is a generalist who can do a little bit of everything—edit, color, and VFX. This can also differ if the media is standard definition or high definition. ), Any other relevant audio specifications (in the case of broadcast television, these specs will usually be contained in a guide from whichever network the spot/episode will be airing on), Production Effects (anything recorded from set other than principal dialog), Sound Effects (separate from Production Effects, anything that was added in post). The simplest shared storage, a box the size of a small desktop computer with 4 hard drives inside it, might cost only $400. How exactly the film is colored will vary depending on the genre, subject matter, and style, but it will fundamentally influence the viewing experience. The most common format outside of a theater environment. On high-end projects, each of those tasks is handed off to a different expert who uses dedicated software. “Mission: Impossible—Fallout” lead editor Eddie Hamilton began putting together scenes for director Chris McQuarrie during the production phase. 2 Real-world Examples of a Remote Dailies Workflow, Highly-Compressed codecs can Slow Down Your Editing, High-Bitrate codecs can Slow Down Your Editing, Editing in log can slow down your editing. Currently, these formats are most commonly used in big-budget, wide release films, and require a specialized cinema (or home theater) setup to properly playback. The assistants need to be able to see what the editor has been working on, and vice versa. The most common use of closed caption files is for various languages. Colorists love log footage because it gives them a lot more room to make changes in the color grade. Digital color correction tools give you control over all of an image’s properties, down to the pixel level. In those cases, it may not be acceptable to wait for proxy files to be generated, and so it can be faster to edit directly on the camera files. If the editor wants to make heavy use of metadata in the editing process, the assistants will also tag and categorize the new clips to help with the editing process later. Likewise, recoloring the sky in a scene can shift the tone of an environment to lighten the mood, or to make it heavier. Many video producers will burn open captions into their video, so the message behind the video is conveyed without audio…or to entice the viewer to enable the audio. File based media delivery has become the industry standard over the past ten years. It’s mainly in color-correction and VFX that you’ll see the benefits of higher-quality codecs. We now have several options and tools available to create these files. Once the editor is confident of the shot’s placement in the sequence, the VFX editor (or an assistant editor) will prep several files. This allows viewers who are consuming both (re) broadcast media from television, as well as exclusively online content to enjoy the content without constantly adjusting the volume during playback. VR video players have special decoders that tailor the audio experience depending on where the viewer is looking. The value in the Code field is extended with, for example, “-01” to indicate that this is the first workflow that is created from the workflow template. The two most scrutinized measurements of any audio mix are the average loudness for the entire program, and the level the loudest sound. The editor crafts the story. The primary factors are speed (how fast can you copy files in and out? The colorist just colors. If you are using a highly-compressed codec, if you are using a high-bitrate codec, or if you are recording in a log format, then an offline edit will probably allow you to work faster, on cheaper hardware. Open captioning, or timed segmented transcriptions and descriptions of the audio, are permanently “burned” into the video frames of your finished media and are thus always visible. If music is specially composed for the project however, this step may simply be a check-up. Color correction is usually handled by a specialist team. On most projects, the dailies have to go out to two different groups: the editorial team, and the reviewers (producer, director, client). Balancing the different elements of the soundtrack with each other (both through volume and the high/low frequency content of the elements), Establishing dynamic peaks and valleys in the mix (this can add excitement and reinforce a project’s pacing), Spreading elements throughout the stereo (or surround) field through panning (in the case of post production audio, this can also mean tracking objects on screen), SMI or SAMI (Synchronized Accessible Media Interchange), Color levels (examples: Rec. What is Post-Production? This is a complicated and delicate process, but some basic elements are as follows: There are various formats a final mix can take, depending on the ultimate delivery needs. Contributed by Seth Goldin, Tech, post-production, and workflow at Freethink Media. With asynchronous feedback, different reviewers can leave their comments at different times, which is often even more important than distributed feedback. With a few exceptions, raw video is almost always much larger than non-raw video. The term “color correction” traditionally referred to a specific step in film development, but it’s become common to use it to refer to the entire process of reworking the visual elements of video, as we do here.]. But for the same reasons that good color correction can enhance your story, bad color correction can radically degrade it. Instead of rendering and exporting the clips on the timeline, it copies the data straight from the source files into the export file, keeping the color information untouched. Non-broadcast professional video outlets, such as Netflix and Hulu, have defined their own standards for media delivery. Whatever keying software you use, you’ll select the color you wish to key out from the shot. While an all-in-one embedded file sounds like the most complete option, it’s not always the easiest. If the end point or VOD outlet doesn’t support that wrapper, or the caption file is not embedded correctly, the closed captioning files may not be found by the media player. Some public networks still require a mono mix for broadcast, and it is a good idea to make sure your mix is mono-compatible for playback on phones, smart home speakers, and other mobile devices. If you are producing a feature film to be shown in theaters, or if you are investing a lot of money into a project that may live on for years to come (and may be shown on as-yet-unknown technology), then ACES may be well worth your while. Does all of that sound simple? It provides some of the advantages of online editing and also removes the need to relink back to the original camera files. Transcoding is the process of converting files from one codec into another, and the DIT may even have to transcode the files into multiple formats—one for the producers/director to view, and another for the editors to use. One final note. Mixing facilities require specialised systems to work in Dolby Atmos, so be sure to confirm a facility’s capabilities if this format is needed for your project. For groups of files, or large files, however, web-based (HTTP) uploads can be slower and less reliable than optimized connections. With that data, the screen can be replaced in post, freeing up the production crew from worries about reflections, light issues, or image flicker that are common when recording screens. Contributed by Charles Haine, Filmmaker, writer, host and professor. As soon as the edit has been locked, it’s time for the conform. On a VFX-intensive film, there may be thousands of effects shots distributed among numerous vendors. Find Pushpa on LinkedIn. Those mistakes are rare, however. Color correction is the process of adjusting and enhancing the visual characteristics of a film, including exposure, contrast, and color balance. Essentially, it is a snapshot of the project in your editing software that can be imported into Digital Audio Workstations (DAWs) like Pro Tools. In order to composite multiple foreground (or mid-ground) elements over a background in compositing, you need a matte for each element. Image © Logra Studio Photography. A carefully-maintained folder structure system helps keep each file in exactly the right place, and the files themselves will often be renamed so that, even if they get moved out of the correct folder, it will be clear where they belong. Because the online editor is the last person to touch the project, they are often asked to handle last-minute changes to the color, or even to the edit. A sidecar captions file is a standalone, self-contained file that is meant to be referenced by a media player that understands the relationship between the closed caption file and media file. Creating a believable CG character or scene that looks like it was photographed is a huge challenge involving numerous complex tasks that may require anywhere from several to several hundred skilled artists to complete. The above quote, at least in 2020, is NOT an exaggeration. The finishing artist will have to recreate each one in the new software. Many, but not all, mixing facilities are set up to work in 7.1. Good color correction pushes a story’s tone and captures a certain emotional reaction from viewers. However, the rise of video acquisition with mobile devices, plus consumption of those same videos on social media sites like Instagram have led to the need to deliver media in different aspect ratios. For example, you can alter the appearance of an actor’s skin, replace an undesired color with an entirely new one, or even “relight” a scene after it has been captured. It is preferable to send a larger number of well organized tracks, instead of combining different kinds of clips together on a smaller number of tracks. Blackmagic Design (along with the Magic Lantern hack for Canon DSLRs) brought raw recording options to lower-budget cameras a few years ago. Post Production Process: Selection of a Sound Editor: After the preparation of the edited movie, there is a need to improve the sound quality. If you’re going for the highest possible sound quality, then you’ll get a better recording if you use a dedicated sound recorder. Pro tip: Follow the general rule: less is more. If the editorial team is nearby, it may be simplest to send a courier with a hard drive. Premiere Pro has a useful tool called Smart Render that can come in handy at this stage, if you are using one of the compatible codecs. This media is often very large, as VOD outlets will create compressed streaming versions for consumption by viewers on a wide variety of devices. The tiniest details make or break this stage. Many music compositions incorporate these types of effects as well (cymbal swells, eerie drones, etc). Many feature films, even blockbusters, will begin their post-production during the shoot as well, with the lead editor on-set putting clips together, or back at base, cutting completed scenes. If the viewer turns to face the dog, the sound will come from the center of the sound field. Plus, YouTube will try and create its own caption files for uploaded videos. The process is still fairly standardized among different types of projects, though some phases will be much condensed. In order to preview your footage accurately, you will need to add a lot of contrast and saturation. HTTP is also not as secure as other transmission methods, meaning your media stream could be intercepted. You can translate light into numbers in many different ways, and so there are many different types of color spaces, some of which have been around for decades, and some of which are brand new. This makes it simple to designate which files are locked and which are unlocked. At the end of the day (and sometimes also in the middle of the day), the DIT preps the dailies and sends them off to the producers to view, and to the editors to begin creating assembly edits. 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